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Insect Wings Are Rainbows of Color

first_imgScientists in Sweden have found that a feature of transparent insect wings – their shimmering colors – may have a purpose.  They are not just accidental patterns like the rainbow colors of oil on water, but are stable structures genetically determined for insect recognition and mating.  They call them “wing interference patterns” (WIP) but their evolutionary explanation for them appears to be a work in progress (WIP).    Publishing in PNAS,1 the team said that these color patterns “have been largely overlooked by biologists” even though they have been known since before Darwin.  Like the oil-on-water effect, “These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference,” but the effect in insects is not accidental.  “The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling.”    The patterns, they found are not just genetically stable, but are reinforced by additional structures, such as “membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement.”  They continued, “The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences.”  Their paper is loaded with dazzling color images of various insect wings.  They feel this largely-overlooked feature of Hymenoptera (bees, wasps) and Diptera (flies) can serve as a species identifier and a potent source of experimentation on genetic control of wings.    The authors had a lot to say about evolution.  They ascribed these coloration patterns to sexual selection, but it was clear their thinking was largely unformed and tentative: “The WIP is potentially a major contribution to the toolbox for evolution of small insects with transparent wings and thus an important piece of the evolutionary puzzle, they said at the end of the paper.  Apparently no other biologist has examined these features of insects before in evolutionary terms.Update 01/13/2010: Live Science posted an article and photo album about this phenomenon that they said was “hidden in plain sight” from scientists.  One researcher at the University of Lund said, “one day you handle a specimen, which you may very well [have] seen before, and suddenly you notice the wing pattern, which is beautiful and perfect, like an art painting.”  A colleague responded when shown these patterns, “It was like the world I knew suddenly was turned upside down and a totally new character system was sparkling from every wing of the flies I had been working with for years without really noticing.”  But then he said, “We find it hard to believe that insects walk and fly around with wings that can be turned on to large (to them) flashing billboards without evolution picking up on it.”  The article later acknowledged that evolution of these art paintings is not straightforward from the evidence: “They also hope to learn whether evolution drives changes in the color patterns,” putting any scientific understanding into future tense.  For now, “The study is an example of old-fashioned science yielding new information,” he said.1.  Shevtsova, Hansson, Janzen and Kj�randsend, “Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, print January 3, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1017393108 (open access).One thing is clear: insects did not decide to “evolve” this capability, nor did “evolution” as if it was some purpose-driven goddess.  Yet again and again, the authors spoke of evolution as a purposeful agent with a toolkit for getting things done.  We need to kick some butt about misuse of terms in evolutionary theory.    The patterns truly are beautiful; you should look at the images in this open-access paper.  In creation, things are often functional as well as beautiful.  You yourself should be useful as well as ornamental.  For a new year resolution, work on whichever part is not optimum.(Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Hansen captures Joburg Open

first_img269 – Anders Hansen (DEN) 71 68 64 66 270 – Andrew McLardy (RSA) 65 68 69 68 271 – David Drysdale (SCO) 65 66 71 69 272 – Danny Willett (ENG) 67 66 71 68272 – Tyrone van Aswegen (RSA) 69 65 70 68272 – Charl Schwartzel (RSA) 68 71 63 70 273 – Richard McEvoy (ENG) 69 65 72 67273 – David Dixon (ENG) 68 69 68 68273 – Joakim Haeggman(SWE) 69 68 66 70 274 – Estanislao Goya (ARG) 70 69 69 66274 – Louis Oosthuizen (RSA) 71 66 67 70 275 – Charl Coetzee (RSA) 68 67 75 65275 – Richard Sterne (RSA) 71 66 70 68275 – Jaco Van Zyl (RSA) 67 70 69 69275 – Taco Remkes (NED) 67 70 69 69275 – Graham de Laet (CAN) 72 66 68 69275 – Michael Hoey (NIR) 64 68 72 71275 – James Kamte (RSA) 69 69 66 71275 – Thomas Aiken (RSA) 69 69 66 71 Hansen had a 20-footer for eagle on 18, which would have put unbearable pressure on McLardy, but he left it three feet short. He then rammed home the birdie putt to go to 15-under, thus setting McLardy a target of 68. He sealed the deal with an impressive five-under-par 66, holding off the challenge of South Africa’s Andrew McLardy, whose second place was his second in the three years of the tournament. Source: Sunshine Tour Retief Goosen, who started the final round just one off the pace, endured a horrible day: His card was littered with nine bogeys, six of which came on the homeward nine as he crashed out of contention. Willett shared fourth with third-round leader Charl Schwartzel and fellow-South African Tyrone van Aswegen. 12 January 2009 The South African had sniffed victory when he turned up the heat on the back nine by stringing together a sequence of three birdies through 10, 11, and 12 to creep up onto the pacesetter. Anders Hansen of Denmark birdied the final hole to finish at 15-under-par 269 and walk away with the R2.25-million winner’s cheque at the third Joburg Open played at the Royal Johannesburg and Kensington Golf Club on Sunday. A bogey on the 12th was hardly noticed as the Danish player made six birdies, including four consecutively from the sixth hole to the turn, which he reached he 31. He put the cherry on the top with his final birdie on 18th to secure victory. With the big crowd on the stands at the 18th willing him on, McLardy had a 25-foot putt to get into a playoff, but it fell two feet short. Third placeBehind the duel between Hansen and McLardy, Scotsman David Drysdale quietly shot a two-under-par 69 to ease himself into third place, ahead of the young Danny Willett of England. Frustratingly shortHowever, it was not to be as six consecutive pars, five of which could have been converted into birdies, left him frustratingly short. On the 13th, he curled a delightful approach round the trees in exactly the way he had told journalists he liked to do, landing the ball just 12 feet from the pin. Although he left his birdie attempt just inches short, it was the kind of putt that had “winner” written all over it. Schwartzel, after a superb 63 in the third round, that included a hole-in-one on the 12th, had a frustrating final round, shooting 70, but spending most of his time trying to bail himself out of bad spots or making up for his four bogeys. Defending champion Richard Sterne, who was attempting to join Seve Ballesteros and Nick Faldo as the only men to win three successive European Tour events in succession, had to settle for 12th place. His scorecard was hampered by far too many bogeys, and his final blitz of five birdies in eight holes in his final round was counterbalanced by two more bogeys. LEADERBOARD ‘That was very good’“I played really nice on the front side there, hitting a lot of good shots, so that was very good,” he said. He finished with a bang, however, entertaining the crowd with a 228-metre albatross on the 18th. Ultimately, his round was a disappointment as he closed with a three-over-par 74.last_img read more

OABA Offers Wheat Testing Seminar in Findlay

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The Ohio AgriBusiness Association, in conjunction with the Ohio Small Grains Marketing Program, will host a Wheat Testing Protocols & Standards seminar May 24 in Findlay, Ohio.OABA members, farmers and agribusiness professionals who work with grain are encouraged to register. The event is free for OABA members, and certified crop advisers can obtain continuing education credits for attending.“Our wide array of presenters and panelists will provide the latest trends and information on standards, procedures and requirements as they relate to wheat testing and the wheat industry at the state and national levels,” said OABA President and CEO Chris Henney. “This is just one of many ways OABA cooperates with industry partners to educate and enhance the skills of the highly-qualified workforce for the state’s agribusiness industry.”Topics and presenters for the day include:A Wheat Testing Challenges and Discrepancies panel featuring CJ Lin from The Mennel Milling Company and Diane Gannon of Diane Gannon, LLC.Federal Grain Inspection Service Testing Procedures with Tim Norden of the USDA Federal Grain Inspection ServiceObtaining & Processing Samples with Ben Weaver and Jamie Welch of EnviroLogixRisk Management Agency Policies with Brian Frieden of the USDA Risk Management AgencyReconciling Standard Discrepancies with Jess McCluer of the National Grain & Feed AssociationRegistrationThe OABA Wheat Testing Protocols & Standards seminar will be held from 8:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. on Tuesday, May 24 at The Sterling Center, 4570 Fostoria Ave, Findlay, Ohio 45840.Registration is free for OABA members and $100 for non-members, and includes lunch. For more information and to register online, visit www.oaba.net/events, or call 614-326-7520.last_img read more

Low corn and soybean yields predicted for 2019

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The latest AccuWeather 2019 crop production analysis predicts a significant decline from last year’s corn and soybean yield, as well as a noticeable variation from the July U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates.AccuWeather analysts predict the 2019 corn yield will be 13.07 billion bushels, a decline of 9.3% from 2018 and 5.8% lower than the latest USDA figures. It would be the lowest yield since 2012, a year of a significant drought that saw final corn production numbers plummet to 10.76 billion bushels.The difference between AccuWeather and USDA estimates centers on forecasts for projected corn acres harvested, with AccuWeather analysts concerned that late-planted corn either won’t yield well or could be affected more so this year by on-time frost.AccuWeather’s projected soybean yield of 3.9 billion bushels reflects an even greater decline from 2018’s final soybean production numbers. It would be a 14.1% dropoff from the final figure of 4.544 billion bushels, and the lowest yield since 2013 (3.357 billion bushels). However, AccuWeather’s predicted soybean yield is 1.4% higher than the USDA’s July estimate (3.845 billion bushels).“The upcoming weather is still very important for both crops,” said Jason Nicholls, AccuWeather Senior Meteorologist. “We’re not forecasting horrible weather but there have been some problem areas in a small but important part of the U.S. Corn Belt, including Iowa, Illinois and Indiana.”The USDA will release its monthly World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) on Monday, Aug. 12. Last month’s WASDE estimates left many in the farming industry puzzled by the high forecast for corn acreage planted (91.7 million acres) despite the flooding and persistent rain that plagued Corn Belt farmers early.The estimate had “everyone scratching their heads,” Fred Traver, a farmer from Ohio, emailed AccuWeather. “The best guess by analysts and farm organizations is that [estimate] includes acres reported to the USDA/Farm Service Agency as prevented planting corn and is not the actual planted acres…. Hopefully that will be separated from the actual planted acres sometime in the near future.”last_img read more

DPM tables Travelers Currency Declaration Amendment Bill 2018 in the House of

first_imgFacebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp#Bahamas, January 25, 2018 – Nassau – Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance the Hon. Peter K. Turnquest tabled the Travelers Currency Declaration (Amendment) Bill 2018 in the House of Assembly, Wednesday, January 24, 2018.  DPM Turnquest explained that the Amended Bill seeks to tackle several issues by stating clearly what travelers must declare to Customs officials in The Bahamas.An updated Customs Form will reflect the changes to be made, which includes declarations for currency or other negotiable instruments or precious metals or precious stones. Items not declared will either be detained or forfeited as items not declared.  However, the property cannot be detained for more than 72 hours after seizure unless a magistrate orders its continued detention for a period not exceeding three months from the date of the original detention or seizure.The DPM also defended this present Government Administration’s handling of the Financial Services Industry particularly the domestic banking sector in particular of bank closures.“What we see today is the continuation of a trend that has been happening now for several years.  Unfortunately, it is a global trend as more and more banks because of the availability of technology, are taking advantage of that technology to reduce their costs.“Reducing their costs unfortunately means that some of them are moving to an electronic banking platform, requiring less brick and mortar locations, and as a result less bodies.”He said the Bahamian people have not been prepared to benefit or to adapt to the new technology and new reality; and this Government has been trying to take advantage of new technology through the Commercial Enterprises Bill, the efforts being taken in Grand Bahama to create a tech hub, and the promotional tour that the Prime Minister is on in Austin, Texas trying to develop interests in The Bahamas as a tech hub.“Although we are late, we are trying to help our people are adapt to this new reality — even as we talk about Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies and how they are going to affect the way we do business, how monetary policy is determined and controlled.”DPM Turnquest also explained that the Government does not control the closure or consolidation of banks, but it is preparing and putting in place strategic plans on how it is going to address the evolution of the banking system.“I do not want to get ahead of the Prime Minister (Dr. the Hon. Hubert Minnis) as to what are the plans for the domestic financial industry and how we intend to make provision for these communities that have all of a sudden become unbanked.“We want to extend our reach into communities that have been under-served or not served for years and how we need to rationalize the web shop phenomena and these electronic payments and again all of the crpytocurrencies that are popping up.  You will hear more about those kinds of things and how we intend to address them from a technological point of view and a future vision point of view.”He said that in Bimini, the Government encouraged the Bank of The Bahamas to open there as well as Exuma.  The Government also encouraged another Bahamian bank to go into Spanish Wells.“We are doing the best that we can, but we do recognize that is not necessarily the best and the most financially wise approach, because it does [require] additional costs, and in a lot of these communities the cost of business outweighs the benefit.“But we have to understand that we have a moral obligation also.  So we will continue to do the best that we can for these under-served communities to the extent where we can encourage the Board of the Bank of The Bahamas to look at these communities to see whether they can justify establishing branches in either part-time or off-days, or whether full-time,” the DPM said. Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Related Items:last_img read more

San Diego Miramar Colleges 911 Remembrance Ceremony

first_imgSan Diego Miramar College’s 9/11 Remembrance Ceremony 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek  . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsMIRAMAR (KUSI) – San Diego Miramar College held a 9-11 remembrance ceremony hosted  by the fire tech Academy. KUSI’s  Elizabeth Alvarez shows us why the annual event is critical in helping young students understand the meaning behind ‘Never Forget.’Remembering what happened on 9-11 is personal for Retired San Diego Fire Captain Ron Edrozo. “We went there with the intent of saving lives. That was our intent. But as soon as we got there we knew this was going to be mostly recovery and hopefully we could send some people home.”He spent 3 weeks at ground zero as part of the California Urban Search and Rescue Team.During that dreadful time, Captain Edrozo and his team recover the body of a New York Port Authority Police Officer. Port Authority Officer Uhuru Houston had died while attempting to rescue victims trapped in the World Trade Center.Seventeen years later, as an instructor for the Miramar College Fire Tech Academy, Cpt. Edrozo stands before students at the school’s annual 9-11 remembrance ceremony helping them to understand the significance of what happened.“We want them to know this is what you’re putting in for it’s not just the fire fighting in the building collapse it’s a lot of medical aid and so you need to get out there and do your thing out there and remember that you’re out there to help the public” said Edrozo.Many of the students, who are one day hoping to become firefighters, were children even babies 17 years ago when 9/11 happen.  Student Justin Johnson was 10.“At the time I had no idea the significance of that event” said Johnson.  But as he grew up, Johnson and other prospective firefighters at Miramar College have come to understand the horror, the unification of the country and the heroism that was involved.And now, these young men and women have desire to be just like Captain Edrozo.“It speaks volumes about him as a person that Not only was he willing to risk so much by being there during 9/11 but that he’s here today and that we can call him our instructor.  I think that with Captain Edrozo we can say that as students we’re certainly in good hands” said Johnson. Posted: September 11, 2018 Elizabeth Alvarez Updated: 5:35 PMcenter_img Elizabeth Alvarez, September 11, 2018 Categories: Local San Diego News Tags: September 11 FacebookTwitterlast_img read more