Scientists in Sweden have found that a feature of transparent insect wings – their shimmering colors – may have a purpose. They are not just accidental patterns like the rainbow colors of oil on water, but are stable structures genetically determined for insect recognition and mating. They call them “wing interference patterns” (WIP) but their evolutionary explanation for them appears to be a work in progress (WIP). Publishing in PNAS,1 the team said that these color patterns “have been largely overlooked by biologists” even though they have been known since before Darwin. Like the oil-on-water effect, “These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference,” but the effect in insects is not accidental. “The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling.” The patterns, they found are not just genetically stable, but are reinforced by additional structures, such as “membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement.” They continued, “The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences.” Their paper is loaded with dazzling color images of various insect wings. They feel this largely-overlooked feature of Hymenoptera (bees, wasps) and Diptera (flies) can serve as a species identifier and a potent source of experimentation on genetic control of wings. The authors had a lot to say about evolution. They ascribed these coloration patterns to sexual selection, but it was clear their thinking was largely unformed and tentative: “The WIP is potentially a major contribution to the toolbox for evolution of small insects with transparent wings and thus an important piece of the evolutionary puzzle, they said at the end of the paper. Apparently no other biologist has examined these features of insects before in evolutionary terms.Update 01/13/2010: Live Science posted an article and photo album about this phenomenon that they said was “hidden in plain sight” from scientists. One researcher at the University of Lund said, “one day you handle a specimen, which you may very well [have] seen before, and suddenly you notice the wing pattern, which is beautiful and perfect, like an art painting.” A colleague responded when shown these patterns, “It was like the world I knew suddenly was turned upside down and a totally new character system was sparkling from every wing of the flies I had been working with for years without really noticing.” But then he said, “We find it hard to believe that insects walk and fly around with wings that can be turned on to large (to them) flashing billboards without evolution picking up on it.” The article later acknowledged that evolution of these art paintings is not straightforward from the evidence: “They also hope to learn whether evolution drives changes in the color patterns,” putting any scientific understanding into future tense. For now, “The study is an example of old-fashioned science yielding new information,” he said.1. Shevtsova, Hansson, Janzen and Kj�randsend, “Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, print January 3, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1017393108 (open access).One thing is clear: insects did not decide to “evolve” this capability, nor did “evolution” as if it was some purpose-driven goddess. Yet again and again, the authors spoke of evolution as a purposeful agent with a toolkit for getting things done. We need to kick some butt about misuse of terms in evolutionary theory. The patterns truly are beautiful; you should look at the images in this open-access paper. In creation, things are often functional as well as beautiful. You yourself should be useful as well as ornamental. For a new year resolution, work on whichever part is not optimum.(Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Convore, the real-time, Web-based group message system, just went live in the iTunes App Store. Previously, Convore was available only as a Web-based messaging service and this was one of the things that set it apart – though perhaps not in a good way.“Basically, it’s a contemporary version of IRC,” said co-founder Leah Culver, when last we looked at the service. Now, the service has hit iOS and taken this new form of IRC on the road. Will an app change anything? Or does this just mean that all of you Convore addicts (and it seems like there are quite a few already) can get your fix from wherever you are?If you haven’t used Convore yet, it’s a bit of an amalgamation of online forum topic structuring with and IRC-esque real-time chat room. Sometimes, something can be so simple that it’s elegant and this is one of those times. Convore doesn’t cram in too much and relies on one simple thing – our desire to communicate, share thoughts and socialize.Before we go to far, I’ll admit it – I’ve become a bit hooked myself. Convore brings me back to the days of BBSes and chatrooms. So yes, I am one of these excited folks who can now obsessively check for new messages from wherever. But let’s get back to the task at hand – Convore’s iPhone app. Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology Tags:#mobile#news#web Related Posts mike melanson Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … So what does the iPhone app do? Just that. It’s Convore, but now on your iPhone. You can view and participate in real-time conversations, star messages that you like, send @reply messages to other users, see who’s online and search for new groups to join. I think that’s about everything I do on the basic website, as well.Will the app change anything for Convore, other than the level of addictiveness? So far, I’m using it the same, but it certainly means I can take the Convore experience and user-base and take it on the go. All that needs to happen to turn Convore into a mobile group messaging app like most any other now is to use it for that purpose. Create a private group and there you have it.Convore co-founder Leah Culver said it not only changed what it could be used for, but how she used it as well.“Before, we were just a website, but as a website and mobile, it makes Convore more of a service,” said Culver. “I’ll find myself checking it like I check other apps.”Convore has been lumped together with a slew of other group messaging and group chat apps, such as Beluga and GroupMe, but is inherently more like a public chat than a private messaging service. Yobongo has also been thrown in the same category, and while it is also inherently public, it organizes users not according to self-created groups and subtopics, but according to affinities, relevancy and location. A big distinction between Convore and these other services, however, is that Convore is more of a platform play.For now, Convore is available as an app on the iPhone. There is also a third-party Android app called Convorsation, and the Convore team is encouraging anyone who wants to to use the Convore API and build an app of their own.
Virat Kohli invited the Indian cricket team to dine at his restaurant Nueva at Delhi’s RK Puram.Team India is currently in Delhi, Kohli’s home town. The Men in Blue will take on New Zealand in the first of three T20 Internationals at the Feroz Shah Kotla.The Indian team, in the middle of another hectic home season, however, made the most of a night out in Delhi which is gearing up to welcome the winter.The likes of MS Dhoni, Hardik Pandya, Shikhar Dhawan, KL Rahul, Manish Pandey, Jasprit Bumrah and coach Ravi Shastri were seen at the fine dining restaurant which specialises in authentic South American food.Great fun with the boys at Nueva. ?????And a very Happy Anniversary to Jatt ji @SDhawan25 and Aesha. [email protected] #StumpedAtNueva #TeamIndia #SouthAmericanCuisine pic.twitter.com/LNFaWerGVb- Virat Kohli (@imVkohli) November 1, 2017Kohli has been in top form throughout 2017 and is the leading run scorer in ODIs this year. He has also hammered six hundreds and has led India to series wins over England, West Indies, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand.Besides, Kohli also oversaw India’s journey to the final of the Champions Trophy final which they lost to Pakistan.India will play New Zealand at the Kotla on Wednesday evening.India, 2007 World T20 champions, have never won a T20 match against New Zealand. The two sides have played five matches so far and the Black Caps have emerged victorious in all those games.India and New Zealand had last clashed in the shortest format during the World T20 last year.advertisement